Design Patterns #7: Template Method

Design patterns episode 7 – Template Method

This post is about template method pattern. Those who are familiar with the Head First book may be wondering where’s facade. The answer to that question is that I deliberately decided to skip the facade at this point. I will definitely come back to this, but maybe next time. Now, let’s move on to the template method.


The Template Method pattern defines the skeleton of an algorithm in a method, deferring some steps to subclasses. Template Method lets subclasses redefine certain steps of an algorithm without changing the algorithm’s structure.
(Freeman, Eric, et al. Head First Design Patterns. O’Reilly Media, Inc. 2004) 

What the above mean? It means that the pattern is built on base abstract class which has a public method which defines our algorithm by invoking in intended order some other methods which may be overridden by subclasses. The algorithm’s member methods may provide default implementation of be abstract forcing the subclasses to provide their own unique implementation.

Most of the examples you can find is based on preparation of pizza, coffee etc. And they’re really good. Pizza for instance: when you’re cooking a pizza no matter what style you basically do the same: prepare dough, add sauce, toppings, put it into oven and cut. That’s the algorithm. But you certainly do different dough for American pizza and for traditional Italian pizza, you add different toppings for vegetarian pizza and for meat pizza – and that’s the where we may want to override our sub-methods of the algorithm.

The code below will not be about pizzas, it’s going to be a generic code that does nothing but show how the pattern may be implemented.
Let’s take a look at our base class:

As you can see our TemplateMethod() is not marked as virtual therefore it cannot be overridden – this is the skeleton of the algorithm. In its body this method invoke all member methods – subOperations from 0 to 3. Interesting thing is that the last member method will be executed only if a condition is true. This is called a hook. This is one way to alter the invocation list of the algorithm. You don’t need to use is but it’s good to know. Besides that we have combination of  methods with default implementation, abstract methods and those you cannot overwrite. In our case only one methods needs to be implemented in a subclass – let’s take look:

So, our concrete implementation overwrites one method with implementation in  base class and provides implementation of one abstract class. Simple, so let’s see how it works:

To witness the template method we instantiate new ConcreteTemplate and observe how it behaves – with optional method executed and without.

And that’s the template method pattern. The best explanation of this pattern I’ve found so far is in the Head First book but below you will find also one link to a YouTube video with Phil Japikse – you may find it useful.
Thanks for today and expect the next pattern next week.

Design Patterns: Template Method – YouTube
Source code: TXT file